Since Belavin, Polyakov, and Zamolodchikov introduced conformal field theory as an operator algebra formalism which relates some conformally invariant critical clusters in two-dimensional lattice models to the representation theory of Virasoro algebra, it has been applied in string theory and condensed matter physics. In mathematics, it inspired development of algebraic theories such as Virasoro representation theory and the theory of vertex algebras. After reviewing its development and presenting its rigorous model in the context of probability theory and complex analysis, I discuss its application to the theory of Schramm-Loewner evolution.